Nutrition Chapter 7

Sep 15th, 2023
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113 test answers
question
What is the sum of all chemical reactions that go on in the body?
answer
Metabolism
question
In photosynthesis, plants use the sun, water and CO2 to synthesize
answer
carbs
question
Powerhouses are
answer
mitochondria
question
A feature of catabolic reactions is that they
answer
release energy
question
Reactions where simple compounds are combined into more complex molecules are
answer
Anabolic
question
The site of lipid synthesis in the cell is the
answer
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
question
Which is an anabolic reaction: Pyruvate synthesis from glucose, Acetyl CoA synthesis from cholesterol, CO2 from citric acid, or cholesterol from acetyl CoA molecules?
answer
cholesterol from acetyl CoA molecules
question
The formation of glycogen by the liver is an example of
answer
anabolism
question
Which reaction is catabolic: Glucose formation from glycerol, urea formation from an amino acid, albumin formation from amino acids, or palmitic acid formation from acetate?
answer
Urea formation from an amino acid
question
All are functions of the liver except: Synthesis of urea, synthesis of glycogen, production of red blood cells, or conversion of fructose to glucose
answer
production of red blood cells
question
What is the approximate percent efficiency of conversion of food to ATP energy in the body?
answer
50
question
In the adult body, food energy not stored as fat or glycogen is lost as
answer
heat
question
What is a coenzyme?
answer
An organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme
question
The hydrolysis of ATP that often occurs simultaneously with the synthesis of many compounds is an example of
answer
coupled reactions
question
Which metabolic reaction occurs when a cell uses energy?
answer
ATP releases a phosphate group and becomes ADP
question
What is the major energy carrier molecule in most cells?
answer
ATP
question
The basic units derived from food include all except: glycerol, starches, amino acids, fatty acids.
answer
starches
question
What percent of the body's expenditure is furnished by amino acids?
answer
10-15
question
What cannot be formed from acetyl CoA molecules?
answer
glucose
question
Which cannot be formed from pyruvate in humans: Glucose, Fructose, Lactic acid, or Linoleic acid?
answer
Linoleic acid
question
Glycosis is the conversion of
answer
glycogen to pyruvate
question
Is glycosis reversible?
answer
yes
question
What is the order of events in the complete oxidation of glucose?
answer
Glycosis, TCA cycle, electron transport chain
question
Energy in aerobic metabolism is produced (slower/faster) than energy in anaerobic metabolism
answer
slower
question
Aerobic reactions require
answer
oxygen
question
When working out, excess pyruvate is converted to
answer
lactate
question
The Cori cycle involves the interconversion of
answer
lactate and glucose
question
Which is not a possible fate for metabolized glucose: Urea, acetyl CoA, amino acids, or muscle glycogen
answer
Urea
question
Which nutrient can be made from compounds composed of 2 carbon skeletons?
answer
Fatty acids
question
Which is a possible fate of acetyl CoA: degradation to urea, synthesis to glycerol, synthesis to fatty acids, or degradation to ammonia?
answer
synthesis to fatty acids
question
What is the first product of fatty acid catabolism?
answer
Acetyl CoA
question
Fatty acid oxidation results in the direct production of
answer
acetyl CoA
question
Production of excessive amounts of acetyl CoA molecules leads to the synthesis of
answer
fatty acids only
question
In a triglyceride that contains 54 carbons, how many of those can become a part of glucose?
answer
3
question
What compound cannot be formed from fatty acids: Glucose, Ketones, CO2, or Acetyl CoA
answer
Glucose
question
What % of weight of triglycerides cannot be converted to glucose?
answer
95
question
How many acetyl CoA molecules can be obtained from oxidation of an 18 carbon fatty acid?
answer
9
question
What dietary component cannot be used to synthesize and store glycogen?
answer
Animal fats
question
Which dietary component cannot be used to make body proteins?
answer
fatty acids
question
An immediate consequence of a cellular deficiency of oxaloacetate is a slowing of
answer
the TCA cycle
question
All of the following may serve as precursors for oxaloacetate except: fat, starch, glucose, protein
answer
fat
question
What is the immediate fate of of excess dietary protein in the body
answer
deaminated
question
After digested and absorbed, an amino acid that is not used to build protein will first be subject to
answer
removal of its amino group
question
What leads to the production of urea?
answer
Oxidation of amino acids
question
If carbohydrate content of the diet is insufficient, what is converted to glucose?
answer
amino acids
question
When protein consumption is excess, excess amino acids are metabolized and the energy in the molecule is stored as
answer
glycogen and fat
question
What are the products from the complete oxidation of fatty acids?
answer
H20, CO2, and energy
question
Which is not generated by the TCA cycle or electron transport train: water, CO2, ammonia, or energy?
answer
ammonia
question
When is oxygen used in the electron transport chain?
answer
at the end
question
Why do fatty acids have the most energy of all the nutrients?
answer
They have a greater percentage of hydrogen-carbon bonds
question
The number of ATP molecules produced from carbs, protein, or fat, is related to the number of atoms of
answer
hydrogen
question
How many molecules of ATP are generated from the complete oxidation of 1 molecule of glucose?
answer
32
question
How many ATP molecules are synthesized from the complete oxidation of a molecule of palmitic acid?
answer
129
question
Which of the following can be synthesized from all 3 energy yielding nutrients: Lactate, glycogen, oxaloacetate, or acetyl CoA?
answer
Acetyl CoA
question
Which nutrient is easiest for the body to convert to fat?
answer
fat
question
If a person consumes 100 kcals of excess sugar, how many are stored in the body?
answer
75
question
If 100 kcals of excess olive oil are consumed, what % are stored in the body?
answer
95
question
Which of the following is a characteristic of the metabolism of specific macronutrients? a. The rate of fat oxidation does not change when fat is eaten in excess b. The rate of protein oxidation does not change when protein is eaten in excess c. The rate of glucose oxidation does not change when carbohydrate is eaten in excess d. The conversion of dietary glucose to fat represents the major pathway of carbohydrate utilizationWhich of the following is a characteristic of the metabolism of specific macronutrients? a. The rate of fat oxidation does not change when fat is eaten in excess b. The rate of protein oxidation does not change when protein is eaten in excess c. The rate of glucose oxidation does not change when carbohydrate is eaten in excess d. The conversion of dietary glucose to fat represents the major pathway of carbohydrate utilization
answer
the rate of fat oxidation does not change when fat is eaten in excess
question
How does excess carb intake contribute to obesity?
answer
it spares oxidation of body fat and dietary fat
question
What is the body's first reaction to the absorption of abundant amounts of carbs?
answer
synthesis and storage of glycogen
question
All of the following are features of the metabolism of surplus dietary carbohydrate in human beings except a. excess glucose suppresses fat oxidation. b. excess glucose is oxidized only very slowly. c. excess glucose is first used to fill glycogen reserves. d. conversion of excess glucose to fat occurs only to a very limited extent.All of the following are features of the metabolism of surplus dietary carbohydrate in human beings except a. excess glucose suppresses fat oxidation. b. excess glucose is oxidized only very slowly. c. excess glucose is first used to fill glycogen reserves. d. conversion of excess glucose to fat occurs only to a very limited extent.
answer
excess glucose is oxidized only very slowly
question
Which of the following is a feature of the metabolism of surplus dietary fat? a. Excess fat is almost all stored b. Excess fat promotes increased fat oxidation c. Excess fat spares breakdown of body proteins d. Conversion of excess fat to storage fat is inefficient
answer
excess fat is almost all stored
question
After roughly a day of fasting, what is most depleted in the body?
answer
glycogen
question
Of the total amount of carbs in the body, what percentage is used by the brain and nerve cells?
answer
50
question
What percent of carbs in the body is used just by the brain?
answer
25
question
During the first few days of a fast, which energy source provides about 90% of the glucose needed to fuel the body?
answer
protein
question
What dietary nutrient would most rapidly reverse a state of ketosis in a starving person?
answer
carbohydrates
question
How soon would you die from starvation if the body was unable to shift to a state of ketosis?
answer
within 3 weeks
question
Ketosis occurs when
answer
fats are partially oxidized
question
A person with acetone breath most likely has the condition known as
answer
ketonemia
question
What does the brain use for fuel after fasting for a while?
answer
ketones
question
Ketosis makes the breath smell
answer
fruity
question
Ketosis is defined as an elevation of
answer
ketones in the blood
question
How are ketones formed?
answer
Condensation of acetyl CoA molecules
question
Is a decrease in mental alertness a feature in starving people?
answer
no
question
Does ketosis raise or lower blood ph?
answer
lower
question
Which is classified as a ketone body: sorbitol, acetyl CoA, pyruvate, or acetoacetate,
answer
acetoacetate
question
Adverse side effects of typical low carb diets include all except: fatigue, high blood pressure, nausea, or constipation
answer
high blood pressure
question
What type of diet is associated with ketosis?
answer
low carb
question
The health benefits of moderate alcohol intake occur in people with a starting age of
answer
35
question
Binge drinking is the successive consumption of how many drinks?
answer
4-5
question
How many drinks per day is moderate alcohol intake for an average woman?
answer
up to one
question
How many drinks per day is moderate alcohol intake for a man?
answer
up to 2
question
The chemical structure of ethanol consists of
answer
2 carbons and one hydroxyl
question
The ratio of proof to alcohol percentage is
answer
2:1
question
The amount of ethanol in a drink is how many ounces?
answer
.5
question
How many kcals are in 3 ounces of 80 proof rum?
answer
200
question
A beer contains the same amount of alcohol as how many ounces of vodka?
answer
1.5
question
Why do women have a lower alcohol tolerance than men?
answer
Women have lower amounts of stomach alcohol dehydrogenase
question
What organ absorbs alcohol first?
answer
stomach
question
What organ oxidizes alcohol?
answer
liver
question
Which nutrient absorbs alcohol best?
answer
carbs
question
The metabolism of alcohol begins in the
answer
stomach
question
Which of the following is characteristic of alcohol absorption? a. It is slowed when the stomach is full of food b. It is increased when high-fat snacks are eaten c. It is increased when carbohydrate snacks are eaten d. It is lower in women than in men of the same body weight
answer
It is slowed when the stomach is full of food
question
What determines how fast alcohol is eliminated from the body?
answer
Liver alcohol dehydrogenase
question
What is acetaldehyde?
answer
an intermediate in alcohol metabolism
question
Excess alcohol intake leads to a reduction in the synthesis rate of
answer
liver glucose
question
What is the sequence of the stages that brings out advanced liver disease caused by chronic alcohol toxicity?
answer
Fat accumulation, fibrosis, cirrhosis
question
What is MEOS?
answer
A system of enzymes that oxidizes alcohol and drugs
question
What percent of alcohol is eliminated through urine and breath
answer
10
question
Which function is affected first when you start drinking
answer
Judgement and reasoning
question
What blood alcohol percent defines drunkenness?
answer
.10
question
What blood alcohol percent leads to impaired judgement and increased heart rate?
answer
.05
question
what blood alcohol concentration in the body is fatal?
answer
.50
question
What hormone production is surpressed following alcohol intake?
answer
Antidiuretic hormone production
question
The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in people with chronic alcohol abuse stems primarily from a deficiency of
answer
thiamin
question
Ethanol metabolism increases the output of what acid?
answer
gastric acid
question
Chronic excess alcohol intake leads to all of the following effects on folate except a. the small intestine recycles more folate. b. the liver releases more folate into the blood. c. the kidneys excrete more folate via the urine. d. the small intestine absorbs less folate from the diet.
answer
The small intestine recycles more folate
question
how many kcals from ethanol are in 1 drink of vodka or rum?
answer
100
question
What % of fatal traffic accidents involve alcohol?
answer
40
question
What is the median weekly number of alcoholic drinks consumed by college students?
answer
1.5
question
What fraction of domestic violence incident involve alcohol use?
answer
2/3
question
127. Which of the following is a characteristic of alcohol use? a. Ingestion of alcohol cools the body b. Alcohol stimulates the appetite for most people c. Since alcohol is legal, it is not classified as a drug d. Intake of alcohol along with raw seafood reduces the chances of contracting hepatitis
answer
Ingestion of alcohol cools the body
1 of 113
question
What is the sum of all chemical reactions that go on in the body?
answer
Metabolism
question
In photosynthesis, plants use the sun, water and CO2 to synthesize
answer
carbs
question
Powerhouses are
answer
mitochondria
question
A feature of catabolic reactions is that they
answer
release energy
question
Reactions where simple compounds are combined into more complex molecules are
answer
Anabolic
question
The site of lipid synthesis in the cell is the
answer
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
question
Which is an anabolic reaction: Pyruvate synthesis from glucose, Acetyl CoA synthesis from cholesterol, CO2 from citric acid, or cholesterol from acetyl CoA molecules?
answer
cholesterol from acetyl CoA molecules
question
The formation of glycogen by the liver is an example of
answer
anabolism
question
Which reaction is catabolic: Glucose formation from glycerol, urea formation from an amino acid, albumin formation from amino acids, or palmitic acid formation from acetate?
answer
Urea formation from an amino acid
question
All are functions of the liver except: Synthesis of urea, synthesis of glycogen, production of red blood cells, or conversion of fructose to glucose
answer
production of red blood cells
question
What is the approximate percent efficiency of conversion of food to ATP energy in the body?
answer
50
question
In the adult body, food energy not stored as fat or glycogen is lost as
answer
heat
question
What is a coenzyme?
answer
An organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme
question
The hydrolysis of ATP that often occurs simultaneously with the synthesis of many compounds is an example of
answer
coupled reactions
question
Which metabolic reaction occurs when a cell uses energy?
answer
ATP releases a phosphate group and becomes ADP
question
What is the major energy carrier molecule in most cells?
answer
ATP
question
The basic units derived from food include all except: glycerol, starches, amino acids, fatty acids.
answer
starches
question
What percent of the body's expenditure is furnished by amino acids?
answer
10-15
question
What cannot be formed from acetyl CoA molecules?
answer
glucose
question
Which cannot be formed from pyruvate in humans: Glucose, Fructose, Lactic acid, or Linoleic acid?
answer
Linoleic acid
question
Glycosis is the conversion of
answer
glycogen to pyruvate
question
Is glycosis reversible?
answer
yes
question
What is the order of events in the complete oxidation of glucose?
answer
Glycosis, TCA cycle, electron transport chain
question
Energy in aerobic metabolism is produced (slower/faster) than energy in anaerobic metabolism
answer
slower
question
Aerobic reactions require
answer
oxygen
question
When working out, excess pyruvate is converted to
answer
lactate
question
The Cori cycle involves the interconversion of
answer
lactate and glucose
question
Which is not a possible fate for metabolized glucose: Urea, acetyl CoA, amino acids, or muscle glycogen
answer
Urea
question
Which nutrient can be made from compounds composed of 2 carbon skeletons?
answer
Fatty acids
question
Which is a possible fate of acetyl CoA: degradation to urea, synthesis to glycerol, synthesis to fatty acids, or degradation to ammonia?
answer
synthesis to fatty acids
question
What is the first product of fatty acid catabolism?
answer
Acetyl CoA
question
Fatty acid oxidation results in the direct production of
answer
acetyl CoA
question
Production of excessive amounts of acetyl CoA molecules leads to the synthesis of
answer
fatty acids only
question
In a triglyceride that contains 54 carbons, how many of those can become a part of glucose?
answer
3
question
What compound cannot be formed from fatty acids: Glucose, Ketones, CO2, or Acetyl CoA
answer
Glucose
question
What % of weight of triglycerides cannot be converted to glucose?
answer
95
question
How many acetyl CoA molecules can be obtained from oxidation of an 18 carbon fatty acid?
answer
9
question
What dietary component cannot be used to synthesize and store glycogen?
answer
Animal fats
question
Which dietary component cannot be used to make body proteins?
answer
fatty acids
question
An immediate consequence of a cellular deficiency of oxaloacetate is a slowing of
answer
the TCA cycle
question
All of the following may serve as precursors for oxaloacetate except: fat, starch, glucose, protein
answer
fat
question
What is the immediate fate of of excess dietary protein in the body
answer
deaminated
question
After digested and absorbed, an amino acid that is not used to build protein will first be subject to
answer
removal of its amino group
question
What leads to the production of urea?
answer
Oxidation of amino acids
question
If carbohydrate content of the diet is insufficient, what is converted to glucose?
answer
amino acids
question
When protein consumption is excess, excess amino acids are metabolized and the energy in the molecule is stored as
answer
glycogen and fat
question
What are the products from the complete oxidation of fatty acids?
answer
H20, CO2, and energy
question
Which is not generated by the TCA cycle or electron transport train: water, CO2, ammonia, or energy?
answer
ammonia
question
When is oxygen used in the electron transport chain?
answer
at the end
question
Why do fatty acids have the most energy of all the nutrients?
answer
They have a greater percentage of hydrogen-carbon bonds
question
The number of ATP molecules produced from carbs, protein, or fat, is related to the number of atoms of
answer
hydrogen
question
How many molecules of ATP are generated from the complete oxidation of 1 molecule of glucose?
answer
32
question
How many ATP molecules are synthesized from the complete oxidation of a molecule of palmitic acid?
answer
129
question
Which of the following can be synthesized from all 3 energy yielding nutrients: Lactate, glycogen, oxaloacetate, or acetyl CoA?
answer
Acetyl CoA
question
Which nutrient is easiest for the body to convert to fat?
answer
fat
question
If a person consumes 100 kcals of excess sugar, how many are stored in the body?
answer
75
question
If 100 kcals of excess olive oil are consumed, what % are stored in the body?
answer
95
question
Which of the following is a characteristic of the metabolism of specific macronutrients? a. The rate of fat oxidation does not change when fat is eaten in excess b. The rate of protein oxidation does not change when protein is eaten in excess c. The rate of glucose oxidation does not change when carbohydrate is eaten in excess d. The conversion of dietary glucose to fat represents the major pathway of carbohydrate utilizationWhich of the following is a characteristic of the metabolism of specific macronutrients? a. The rate of fat oxidation does not change when fat is eaten in excess b. The rate of protein oxidation does not change when protein is eaten in excess c. The rate of glucose oxidation does not change when carbohydrate is eaten in excess d. The conversion of dietary glucose to fat represents the major pathway of carbohydrate utilization
answer
the rate of fat oxidation does not change when fat is eaten in excess
question
How does excess carb intake contribute to obesity?
answer
it spares oxidation of body fat and dietary fat
question
What is the body's first reaction to the absorption of abundant amounts of carbs?
answer
synthesis and storage of glycogen
question
All of the following are features of the metabolism of surplus dietary carbohydrate in human beings except a. excess glucose suppresses fat oxidation. b. excess glucose is oxidized only very slowly. c. excess glucose is first used to fill glycogen reserves. d. conversion of excess glucose to fat occurs only to a very limited extent.All of the following are features of the metabolism of surplus dietary carbohydrate in human beings except a. excess glucose suppresses fat oxidation. b. excess glucose is oxidized only very slowly. c. excess glucose is first used to fill glycogen reserves. d. conversion of excess glucose to fat occurs only to a very limited extent.
answer
excess glucose is oxidized only very slowly
question
Which of the following is a feature of the metabolism of surplus dietary fat? a. Excess fat is almost all stored b. Excess fat promotes increased fat oxidation c. Excess fat spares breakdown of body proteins d. Conversion of excess fat to storage fat is inefficient
answer
excess fat is almost all stored
question
After roughly a day of fasting, what is most depleted in the body?
answer
glycogen
question
Of the total amount of carbs in the body, what percentage is used by the brain and nerve cells?
answer
50
question
What percent of carbs in the body is used just by the brain?
answer
25
question
During the first few days of a fast, which energy source provides about 90% of the glucose needed to fuel the body?
answer
protein
question
What dietary nutrient would most rapidly reverse a state of ketosis in a starving person?
answer
carbohydrates
question
How soon would you die from starvation if the body was unable to shift to a state of ketosis?
answer
within 3 weeks
question
Ketosis occurs when
answer
fats are partially oxidized
question
A person with acetone breath most likely has the condition known as
answer
ketonemia
question
What does the brain use for fuel after fasting for a while?
answer
ketones
question
Ketosis makes the breath smell
answer
fruity
question
Ketosis is defined as an elevation of
answer
ketones in the blood
question
How are ketones formed?
answer
Condensation of acetyl CoA molecules
question
Is a decrease in mental alertness a feature in starving people?
answer
no
question
Does ketosis raise or lower blood ph?
answer
lower
question
Which is classified as a ketone body: sorbitol, acetyl CoA, pyruvate, or acetoacetate,
answer
acetoacetate
question
Adverse side effects of typical low carb diets include all except: fatigue, high blood pressure, nausea, or constipation
answer
high blood pressure
question
What type of diet is associated with ketosis?
answer
low carb
question
The health benefits of moderate alcohol intake occur in people with a starting age of
answer
35
question
Binge drinking is the successive consumption of how many drinks?
answer
4-5
question
How many drinks per day is moderate alcohol intake for an average woman?
answer
up to one
question
How many drinks per day is moderate alcohol intake for a man?
answer
up to 2
question
The chemical structure of ethanol consists of
answer
2 carbons and one hydroxyl
question
The ratio of proof to alcohol percentage is
answer
2:1
question
The amount of ethanol in a drink is how many ounces?
answer
.5
question
How many kcals are in 3 ounces of 80 proof rum?
answer
200
question
A beer contains the same amount of alcohol as how many ounces of vodka?
answer
1.5
question
Why do women have a lower alcohol tolerance than men?
answer
Women have lower amounts of stomach alcohol dehydrogenase
question
What organ absorbs alcohol first?
answer
stomach
question
What organ oxidizes alcohol?
answer
liver
question
Which nutrient absorbs alcohol best?
answer
carbs
question
The metabolism of alcohol begins in the
answer
stomach
question
Which of the following is characteristic of alcohol absorption? a. It is slowed when the stomach is full of food b. It is increased when high-fat snacks are eaten c. It is increased when carbohydrate snacks are eaten d. It is lower in women than in men of the same body weight
answer
It is slowed when the stomach is full of food
question
What determines how fast alcohol is eliminated from the body?
answer
Liver alcohol dehydrogenase
question
What is acetaldehyde?
answer
an intermediate in alcohol metabolism
question
Excess alcohol intake leads to a reduction in the synthesis rate of
answer
liver glucose
question
What is the sequence of the stages that brings out advanced liver disease caused by chronic alcohol toxicity?
answer
Fat accumulation, fibrosis, cirrhosis
question
What is MEOS?
answer
A system of enzymes that oxidizes alcohol and drugs
question
What percent of alcohol is eliminated through urine and breath
answer
10
question
Which function is affected first when you start drinking
answer
Judgement and reasoning
question
What blood alcohol percent defines drunkenness?
answer
.10
question
What blood alcohol percent leads to impaired judgement and increased heart rate?
answer
.05
question
what blood alcohol concentration in the body is fatal?
answer
.50
question
What hormone production is surpressed following alcohol intake?
answer
Antidiuretic hormone production
question
The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in people with chronic alcohol abuse stems primarily from a deficiency of
answer
thiamin
question
Ethanol metabolism increases the output of what acid?
answer
gastric acid
question
Chronic excess alcohol intake leads to all of the following effects on folate except a. the small intestine recycles more folate. b. the liver releases more folate into the blood. c. the kidneys excrete more folate via the urine. d. the small intestine absorbs less folate from the diet.
answer
The small intestine recycles more folate
question
how many kcals from ethanol are in 1 drink of vodka or rum?
answer
100
question
What % of fatal traffic accidents involve alcohol?
answer
40
question
What is the median weekly number of alcoholic drinks consumed by college students?
answer
1.5
question
What fraction of domestic violence incident involve alcohol use?
answer
2/3
question
127. Which of the following is a characteristic of alcohol use? a. Ingestion of alcohol cools the body b. Alcohol stimulates the appetite for most people c. Since alcohol is legal, it is not classified as a drug d. Intake of alcohol along with raw seafood reduces the chances of contracting hepatitis
answer
Ingestion of alcohol cools the body