Bio Chapter 4 And 5

Aug 29th, 2023
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77 test answers
question
Of the following, the _____, which is enclosed in a membrane, has the greatest amount of internal surface areanucleusendoplasmic reticulummitochondrionchloroplastribosome
answer
Endoplasmic reticulum
question
DNA stands are visualized using a(n)light microscopeelectron microscopedissecting microscopecentrifugethermocycler
answer
electron microscope
question
The organelles and biomolecules present i homogenized cells can be separated by centrifugation. Which of the following would be found at the top of the centrifugation gradient?golgimitochondrianucleiribosomesATP molecules
answer
ATP molecules
question
Prokaryotesare surrounded by a cell membranehave a nucleusdo not have ribosomeshave a cell wall similar in composition to that of plant cellsare larger than eukaryotic cells
answer
are surrounded by a cell membrane
question
The proteins that makeup the cytoskelton of bacteria are similar to ____ in eukaryotic cellsproteasessterolsactintranscription factorstelomerases
answer
actin
question
which structure is known for its lack in nucleic acidsthe nucleusmitochondrionplant vacuoleribosomeprokaryotic cell
answer
plant vacuole
question
Some proteins that are on the surface of mammalian cells contain carbohydrates. These proteins are synthesized by ______ and the carbohydrates are added in the _____.Mitochondrial ribosomes; smooth endoplasmic reticulumThe rough endoplasmic reticulum; golgi apparatuscytoplasmic ribosomes; smooth endoplasmic reticulumgolgi apparatus; rough endoplasmic reticulumcytoplasmic ribosomes
answer
the rough endoplasmic reticulum; golgi apparatus
question
Which statement about the nucleus of animal cells is true?it occupies the smallest volume of the cellit powers the cellsit is enclosed by a single membraneDNA in the nucleus combines with proteinsthe nucleus is the site of protein synthesis
answer
DNA in the nucleus combines with proteins
question
The endomembrane systemis present in prokaryotesincludes the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondriaincludes the golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulumfunctions to make ATPdoes not exist in plant cells
answer
includes the golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum
question
which organelles are involves in energy conversionslysosomesvacuoleschloroplastsperoxisomesnuclei
answer
chloroplasts
question
liver cells are exposed to radio active amino acids, making all proteins synthesized during this time radioactive. The cells are then removed at 5-minute intervals are fractionated. Where in the cells is the radioactively-labeled enzyme lipase performing its intracellular functions?in the endoplasmic reticulumin the golgi apparatusin the lysosomeson ribosomesin the cytoskeleton
answer
in the lysosomes
question
Which organelles are found only in plantsglyoxysomesgolgiperoxisomemitochondriaendoplasmic reticulum
answer
gyoxysomes
question
which structure occupies the largest volumes in a mature plant cells?peroxisomeribosomechloroplastvacuolemitochondrion
answer
vacuole
question
plastids are present in nearly all plant cellsalways greenpresent in photosynthetic prokaryotespresent in all eukaryotesvery similar to mitochondria
answer
present in nearly all plant cells
question
which structures are directly involved in the movement of organelles within a cell?golgi apparatusendoplasmic reticulummitochondrionmicrotubulesintermediate filaments
answer
microtubules
question
which proteins power the movement of both the cilia and vesicles within a cellmyosinactinkeratindynein onlykinesin and dynein
answer
kinesin and dynein
question
cilia and eukaryotic flagellapropel cells by rotation of structurecontain microfilamentscontain microtubules that are sufficient to drive movementmust have motor protein that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power movementcontain centrioles
answer
must have the motor protein that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power movement
question
Amoeba proteus is injected with a drugs that inhibits the formation of microtubules. What effect will this have on the organisms movement?it will survive, but not be able to moveit will show hyperactive movementit will die, thus not moveit will only be able to move in one directionthe drug will have no effect on the organisms movement
answer
the drug will have no effect on the organisms movement
question
the extracellular matrix of animal cellsis not involved in chemical ginning between cellsaids in blocking materials from passing between tissuescontain proteoglycanscontain cellulosepigments the cell
answer
contains proteoglycans
question
the presence of ______ means that substances must pass through, rather than between, the epithelial cells that form the lining of the small intestinegap junctionstight junctionsdesmosomesplasmodesmatamicrotubules
answer
tight junctions
question
____ are surface appendages that allow a bacterium to stick to a surface. (Activity 7B)Cell wallsFlagellaRibosomesMitochondriaPili
answer
Pili
question
in eukaryotic cells the first step in protein synthesis is the _____. (Activity 7E)translation of an RNA nucleotide sequence into a sequence of amino acidslinking of nucleotides to form a polypeptidetranslation of a DNA nucleotide sequence into a sequence of amino acidstransferring of information from DNA to messenger RNAremoval of introns from RNA and the stitching together of exons
answer
transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA
question
the cilia and flagella of eukaryotic cells are composed of _____.microtubulesintermediate filamentsmicrofilamentspilitonofilaments
answer
microtubules
question
The primary role of _____ is to bind animal cells together. (Activity 7I)plasmodesmatacommunicating junctionsgap junctionsanchoring junctionstight junctions
answer
anchoring junctions
question
_____ aid in the coordination of the activities of adjacent animal cells. (Activity 7I)Communicating junctionsTight junctionsAnchoring junctionsPlasmodesmataDesmosomes
answer
communicating junctions
question
Which of these organelles carries out cellular respiration? (Activity 7J)nucleoluschromatinsmooth endoplasmic reticulummitochondrionribosomes
answer
mitochondrion
question
Ribosomal subunits are manufactured by the _____. lysosomenucleolusperoxisomerough endoplasmic reticulumsmooth endoplasmic reticulum
answer
nucleolus
question
_____ are the sites of protein synthesis.MitochondriaPeroxisomesGolgi apparatusesMicrofilamentsRibosomes
answer
ribosomes
question
Which of these is involved in the manufacture of membrane? (Activity 7J)smooth endoplasmic reticulumribosomesGolgi apparatusnucleolusrough endoplasmic reticulum
answer
rough endoplasmic reticulum
question
Where is calcium stored? (Activity 7J)mitochondriasmooth endoplasmic reticulumcentriolesrough endoplasmic reticulummicrotubules
answer
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
question
Which of these are hollow rods that shape and support the cell? plasma membranemicrotubuleschloroplastsmicrofilamentsperoxisomes
answer
microtubules
question
___ is/are identical in structure to centrioles. MitochondriaNuclear envelopesChromatinMicrofilamentsBasal bodies
answer
basal bodies
question
which of the following organelles has a double membrane with pores?lysosomeGolgi apparatusmitochondrianucleuschloroplast
answer
nuclues
question
The information center of the cell is the ______.mitochondriachloroplastnucleolinucleuslysosome
answer
nuclues
question
A threadlike material called chromatin is located within the ______. A) nucleus B) nucleolus C) mitochondria D) lysosome E) Golgi apparatu
answer
nucleus
question
Where is ribosomal RNA produced? A) mitochondria B) chloroplasts C) lysosomes D) Golgi apparatus E) nucleoli
answer
nucleoli
question
Which organelle produces steroid hormones in the testes and adrenal cortex while detoxifying alcohol in the liver? A) lysosomes B) ribosomes C) smooth endoplasmic reticulum D) rough endoplasmic reticulum E) Golgi apparatus
answer
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
question
Which type of organelle forms a membranous system of tubular canals, which is continuous with the nuclear envelope and branches throughout the cytoplasm? A) lysosome B) mitochondria C) Golgi apparatus D) endoplasmic reticulum E) microtubules
answer
endoplasmic reticulum
question
hich organelle contains enzymes that modify proteins and lipids? A) lysosomes B) peroxisomes C) Golgi apparatus D) mitochondria E) rough endoplasmic reticulum
answer
golgi apparatus
question
Which organelle synthesizes proteins for export or repackaging elsewhere? A) smooth endoplasmic reticulum B) rough endoplasmic reticulum C) free ribosomes D) lysosomes E) Golgi apparatus
answer
rough endoplasm's reticulum
question
The ______ function(s) in the packaging, storage, and distribution of molecules produced by the ER. A) Golgi apparatus B) lysosome C) nucleus D) mitochondria E) centrioles
answer
golgi apparatus
question
Which plant organelle will provide added support to the cell? A) vacuole B) vesicle C) chloroplast D) lysosomes E) Golgi apparatus
answer
vaculoe
question
Lysosomes are vesicles formed by the ______. A) endoplasmic reticulum B) nucleus C) mitochondria D) ribosomes E) Golgi apparatus
answer
golgi apparatus
question
Which organelle contains hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules? A) rough endoplasmic reticulum B) mitochondria C) centrioles D) lysosomes E) Golgi apparatus
answer
lysosomes
question
The structure of flagella is most similar to that of ______. A) cilia B) basal bodies C) centrioles D) microvilli E) rough endoplasmic reticulum
answer
cilia
question
Which organelle is responsible for the process of photosynthesis? A) mitochondria B) chloroplasts C) centrioles D) cilia E) lysosomes
answer
chloroplasts
question
Which of the following organelles is the largest and most easily observed with the light microscope? A) mitochondria B) chloroplast C) nucleus D) ribosomes E) lysosomes
answer
nucleus
question
What is the correct organelle sequence for the export of material out of a cell? A) rough ER --> smooth ER --> Golgi apparatus B) smooth ER --> rough ER --> Golgi apparatus C) rough ER --> Golgi apparatus --> smooth ER D) smooth ER --> Golgi apparatus --> rough ER E) Golgi apparatus --> rough ER --> smooth ER
answer
rough er to smooth er to golgi apparatus
question
which organelle is used when the fingers of a human embryo are at first webbed but later freed from one another? A) rough ER B) microtubules C) Golgi apparatus D) mitochondria E) lysosome
answer
lysosome
question
A metabolic disorder involving a missing or inactive enzyme is found in the ______ produced by the _______. A) Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum B) ribosomes, nucleolus C) rough endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear envelope D) lysosomes, Golgi apparatus E) mitochondria, plasma membrane
answer
lysosomes, golgi
question
The flattened sacs within a chloroplast are called ______. A) matrix B) cristae C) grana D) thylakoids E) filaments
answer
grana
question
What is the function of the centrosome? A) to control the nucleus B) to regulate the assembly of microfilaments . C) to regulate the assembly of microtubules D) to control the Golgi apparatus E) to control the movement of cilia
answer
to regulate the assembly of microtubules
question
Which cytoskeletal structure is found in muscle cells that helps to bring about contraction? A) smooth endoplasmic reticulum B) rough endoplasmic reticulum C) centrioles D) actin filaments E) microtubules Feedback: Actin filamen
answer
actin filaments
question
Cristae are structures found in the ______. A) Golgi apparatus B) chloroplast C) mitochondria D) lysosome E) centriole
answer
mitochondira
question
Which of the following structures are found in plant cells but NOT in bacteria? A) plasma membrane B) cell wall C) DNA D) ribosomes E) mitochondria
answer
mitochondira
question
why do phospholipids spontaneously form bilayers structures,while oils form small dropletsoils are not as hydrophobic as phospholipidsthe fatty acids in oils prelude bilayer formationoils are energy reserves of cellsoils do not have the polar head group that phospholipids haveoils and water do not mix
answer
oils do not have the polar head group that phospholipids have
question
which statement about membrane proteins is true?hydrophillic regions of integral membrane proteins are in contact with the interior of the bilayerperipheral membrane proteins may be associated with the phospholipid head groupsintegral membrane proteins are fixed in placesome membrane proteins may be DNA attached to themRNA is found as part of most membrane proteins' structure
answer
peripheral membrane proteins may be associated with the phospholipid head groups
question
in addition to the lipid bilayer and proteins membranes may contain ______ in the form of _____ and ______nucleic acids; DNA; RNACarbohydrates; Cellulose; starchtriglycerides; fats; oilsnucleotides; ATP; GTPcarbohydraytes; glycoproteins; glycolipids
answer
carbohydraytes; glycoproteins; glycolipids
question
In animals, cell recognitioninvolves only in glycolipidsis mediated by the lipid bilayerinvovles soluble proteinsinvolves proteins in the plasma membranesis usually heterotypic
answer
involves soluble proteins
question
which molecules would diffuse across a phospholipid bilayer fastest, if there are no proteins associated with the bilayerh2onh4+ch3coo-na+nh3
answer
nh3
question
Osmosis is the movement of water across selectively permeable membranesthe active transport of water across membranesthe unidirectional; diffusion of water across membranesa process that is unaffected by solute concentrations inside cellsa process that requires energy
answer
the movement of water across selectively permeable membranes
question
if a suspension of red bloos cells is an isotonic NaCl collation was suddenly diluted with pure water by a factor of 10 the cells wouldpump water out of the celllose water and shrinkswell and lysetake up water, but the cell walls would prevent burstingremain as they are
answer
swell and lyse
question
in facilitated diffusionmolecules may be transported against concentration gradientspecific integral membrane proteins mediate transportthe rate of transport is independent of the concentration of the molecule transportedATP is usedEndocytosis is used
answer
specific integral membrane proteins mediate transport
question
The sodium-potassium pumpis present in endomembranesis an example of a secondary active transportresults in the formation of an Na+ concentration gradient across the cell membranecarries out facilitated diffusionpumps K+ out of cells
answer
results in the formation of an Na+ concentration gradient across the cell membrane
question
receptor-mediated endocytosisis nonspecificallows small molecules to enter cellsresults in the formation of clathrin-coated vesiclesdirectly involves the golgi apparatus is another name for phagocytosis
answer
results in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles
question
hormones are chemical signals thataffect adjacent cellswork in prokaryotesare autocrine signalstravel through circulatory systemsare paracrine signals
answer
travel through circulatory systems
question
a universal feature of receptors is that theyundergo structural shape changes when the signal molecules is boundare protein kinasesare present in the plasma membraneare ion channel proteinsdo not undergo structural shape changes when the signal molecule is bound
answer
undergo structural shape changes when the signal molecules is bound
question
which statement about receptors and enzymes is truemost receptors and enzymes are nucleic acidsboth receptors and enzymes may be integral membrane proteinsreceptor ligands, like enzyme substrates are altered during signal transductionreceptors and enzymes are not specific for the molecules they bindreceptors generally have enzymatic activity, where as enzymes do not
answer
both receptors and enzymes may be integral membrane proteins
question
chemical signal transduction pathwaysuse nonspecific receptorsinvolve binding of the signal molecule to receptoruse receptors that are located only on the cytoplasmuse receptors that change the ligands they bindall use G proteins
answer
involve binding of the signal molecules to receptor
question
Caffeineis structurally related to GDPbind to a receptor in the braincauses signal transduction by itselfis a signalis a depressant
answer
binds to a receptor in the brain
question
adenyly cyclaseis located in a manner that cAMP is made of outside cells makes cAMP from ATP with the liberation of phosphateis inactivated by activated G proteinsmakes cAMP from ATP with the liberation of pyrophosphateis directly activated by receptors
answer
makes cAMP form ATP with liberation of pyrophosphate
question
which statement about signal cascade is trueglycogen phosphorylase in liver cells is always activecAMP is reffered to as a first messengerepinephrine directly activates adenylyl cylasecAMP is reffered to as a second messengeradenylyl cylase is a protein kinase
answer
cAMP is reffered to as a second messenger
question
which step of the signal transduction cascade that results in glucose release during the fight or flight response involves factors other than nucleotidephosphorlylation go glycogen phosphorylaseactivation of adenyly cylaseepinephrine binding to its receptoractivation of G proteininactivation of glycogen synthase
answer
epinephrine binding to its receptor
question
the phosphorylation of proteins by ATPis catalyzed by enzymes known as protein kinasesalways stimulated that activity of an enzymeis catalyzed by adenylyl cylaseis catalyzed by epinephrine receptoris catalyzed by G protein
answer
is catalyzed by enzymes known as Protein Kinases
question
Suppose the concentrain of epinephrine in the bloodstream of an animal drops. The cyclic Amp concentration in liver cells would be expected to ________ because _____ activity would ______increase; adenylyl cyclase; increasedecrease; protein kinase; decreasedecrease; phosphodiesterase; decreaseincrease; protein kinase; increasedecrease; adenylyl cyclase; decrease
answer
decrease; adenylyl cyclase; decrease
question
Which protein is used to identify the cell? A) adenylate cyclase B) MHC (major histocompatibility complex) protein C) sodium-potassium pump protein D) chloride ion channel protein E) hemoglobin
answer
B) MHC (major histocompatibility complex) protein
question
A hormone such as insulin acts by attaching to _____ proteins in the plasma membrane and increasing the glucose carriers present. A) receptor B) enzymatic C) carrier D) channel E) cell-recognition
answer
A) receptor
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question
Of the following, the _____, which is enclosed in a membrane, has the greatest amount of internal surface areanucleusendoplasmic reticulummitochondrionchloroplastribosome
answer
Endoplasmic reticulum
question
DNA stands are visualized using a(n)light microscopeelectron microscopedissecting microscopecentrifugethermocycler
answer
electron microscope
question
The organelles and biomolecules present i homogenized cells can be separated by centrifugation. Which of the following would be found at the top of the centrifugation gradient?golgimitochondrianucleiribosomesATP molecules
answer
ATP molecules
question
Prokaryotesare surrounded by a cell membranehave a nucleusdo not have ribosomeshave a cell wall similar in composition to that of plant cellsare larger than eukaryotic cells
answer
are surrounded by a cell membrane
question
The proteins that makeup the cytoskelton of bacteria are similar to ____ in eukaryotic cellsproteasessterolsactintranscription factorstelomerases
answer
actin
question
which structure is known for its lack in nucleic acidsthe nucleusmitochondrionplant vacuoleribosomeprokaryotic cell
answer
plant vacuole
question
Some proteins that are on the surface of mammalian cells contain carbohydrates. These proteins are synthesized by ______ and the carbohydrates are added in the _____.Mitochondrial ribosomes; smooth endoplasmic reticulumThe rough endoplasmic reticulum; golgi apparatuscytoplasmic ribosomes; smooth endoplasmic reticulumgolgi apparatus; rough endoplasmic reticulumcytoplasmic ribosomes
answer
the rough endoplasmic reticulum; golgi apparatus
question
Which statement about the nucleus of animal cells is true?it occupies the smallest volume of the cellit powers the cellsit is enclosed by a single membraneDNA in the nucleus combines with proteinsthe nucleus is the site of protein synthesis
answer
DNA in the nucleus combines with proteins
question
The endomembrane systemis present in prokaryotesincludes the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondriaincludes the golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulumfunctions to make ATPdoes not exist in plant cells
answer
includes the golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum
question
which organelles are involves in energy conversionslysosomesvacuoleschloroplastsperoxisomesnuclei
answer
chloroplasts
question
liver cells are exposed to radio active amino acids, making all proteins synthesized during this time radioactive. The cells are then removed at 5-minute intervals are fractionated. Where in the cells is the radioactively-labeled enzyme lipase performing its intracellular functions?in the endoplasmic reticulumin the golgi apparatusin the lysosomeson ribosomesin the cytoskeleton
answer
in the lysosomes
question
Which organelles are found only in plantsglyoxysomesgolgiperoxisomemitochondriaendoplasmic reticulum
answer
gyoxysomes
question
which structure occupies the largest volumes in a mature plant cells?peroxisomeribosomechloroplastvacuolemitochondrion
answer
vacuole
question
plastids are present in nearly all plant cellsalways greenpresent in photosynthetic prokaryotespresent in all eukaryotesvery similar to mitochondria
answer
present in nearly all plant cells
question
which structures are directly involved in the movement of organelles within a cell?golgi apparatusendoplasmic reticulummitochondrionmicrotubulesintermediate filaments
answer
microtubules
question
which proteins power the movement of both the cilia and vesicles within a cellmyosinactinkeratindynein onlykinesin and dynein
answer
kinesin and dynein
question
cilia and eukaryotic flagellapropel cells by rotation of structurecontain microfilamentscontain microtubules that are sufficient to drive movementmust have motor protein that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power movementcontain centrioles
answer
must have the motor protein that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power movement
question
Amoeba proteus is injected with a drugs that inhibits the formation of microtubules. What effect will this have on the organisms movement?it will survive, but not be able to moveit will show hyperactive movementit will die, thus not moveit will only be able to move in one directionthe drug will have no effect on the organisms movement
answer
the drug will have no effect on the organisms movement
question
the extracellular matrix of animal cellsis not involved in chemical ginning between cellsaids in blocking materials from passing between tissuescontain proteoglycanscontain cellulosepigments the cell
answer
contains proteoglycans
question
the presence of ______ means that substances must pass through, rather than between, the epithelial cells that form the lining of the small intestinegap junctionstight junctionsdesmosomesplasmodesmatamicrotubules
answer
tight junctions
question
____ are surface appendages that allow a bacterium to stick to a surface. (Activity 7B)Cell wallsFlagellaRibosomesMitochondriaPili
answer
Pili
question
in eukaryotic cells the first step in protein synthesis is the _____. (Activity 7E)translation of an RNA nucleotide sequence into a sequence of amino acidslinking of nucleotides to form a polypeptidetranslation of a DNA nucleotide sequence into a sequence of amino acidstransferring of information from DNA to messenger RNAremoval of introns from RNA and the stitching together of exons
answer
transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA
question
the cilia and flagella of eukaryotic cells are composed of _____.microtubulesintermediate filamentsmicrofilamentspilitonofilaments
answer
microtubules
question
The primary role of _____ is to bind animal cells together. (Activity 7I)plasmodesmatacommunicating junctionsgap junctionsanchoring junctionstight junctions
answer
anchoring junctions
question
_____ aid in the coordination of the activities of adjacent animal cells. (Activity 7I)Communicating junctionsTight junctionsAnchoring junctionsPlasmodesmataDesmosomes
answer
communicating junctions
question
Which of these organelles carries out cellular respiration? (Activity 7J)nucleoluschromatinsmooth endoplasmic reticulummitochondrionribosomes
answer
mitochondrion
question
Ribosomal subunits are manufactured by the _____. lysosomenucleolusperoxisomerough endoplasmic reticulumsmooth endoplasmic reticulum
answer
nucleolus
question
_____ are the sites of protein synthesis.MitochondriaPeroxisomesGolgi apparatusesMicrofilamentsRibosomes
answer
ribosomes
question
Which of these is involved in the manufacture of membrane? (Activity 7J)smooth endoplasmic reticulumribosomesGolgi apparatusnucleolusrough endoplasmic reticulum
answer
rough endoplasmic reticulum
question
Where is calcium stored? (Activity 7J)mitochondriasmooth endoplasmic reticulumcentriolesrough endoplasmic reticulummicrotubules
answer
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
question
Which of these are hollow rods that shape and support the cell? plasma membranemicrotubuleschloroplastsmicrofilamentsperoxisomes
answer
microtubules
question
___ is/are identical in structure to centrioles. MitochondriaNuclear envelopesChromatinMicrofilamentsBasal bodies
answer
basal bodies
question
which of the following organelles has a double membrane with pores?lysosomeGolgi apparatusmitochondrianucleuschloroplast
answer
nuclues
question
The information center of the cell is the ______.mitochondriachloroplastnucleolinucleuslysosome
answer
nuclues
question
A threadlike material called chromatin is located within the ______. A) nucleus B) nucleolus C) mitochondria D) lysosome E) Golgi apparatu
answer
nucleus
question
Where is ribosomal RNA produced? A) mitochondria B) chloroplasts C) lysosomes D) Golgi apparatus E) nucleoli
answer
nucleoli
question
Which organelle produces steroid hormones in the testes and adrenal cortex while detoxifying alcohol in the liver? A) lysosomes B) ribosomes C) smooth endoplasmic reticulum D) rough endoplasmic reticulum E) Golgi apparatus
answer
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
question
Which type of organelle forms a membranous system of tubular canals, which is continuous with the nuclear envelope and branches throughout the cytoplasm? A) lysosome B) mitochondria C) Golgi apparatus D) endoplasmic reticulum E) microtubules
answer
endoplasmic reticulum
question
hich organelle contains enzymes that modify proteins and lipids? A) lysosomes B) peroxisomes C) Golgi apparatus D) mitochondria E) rough endoplasmic reticulum
answer
golgi apparatus
question
Which organelle synthesizes proteins for export or repackaging elsewhere? A) smooth endoplasmic reticulum B) rough endoplasmic reticulum C) free ribosomes D) lysosomes E) Golgi apparatus
answer
rough endoplasm's reticulum
question
The ______ function(s) in the packaging, storage, and distribution of molecules produced by the ER. A) Golgi apparatus B) lysosome C) nucleus D) mitochondria E) centrioles
answer
golgi apparatus
question
Which plant organelle will provide added support to the cell? A) vacuole B) vesicle C) chloroplast D) lysosomes E) Golgi apparatus
answer
vaculoe
question
Lysosomes are vesicles formed by the ______. A) endoplasmic reticulum B) nucleus C) mitochondria D) ribosomes E) Golgi apparatus
answer
golgi apparatus
question
Which organelle contains hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules? A) rough endoplasmic reticulum B) mitochondria C) centrioles D) lysosomes E) Golgi apparatus
answer
lysosomes
question
The structure of flagella is most similar to that of ______. A) cilia B) basal bodies C) centrioles D) microvilli E) rough endoplasmic reticulum
answer
cilia
question
Which organelle is responsible for the process of photosynthesis? A) mitochondria B) chloroplasts C) centrioles D) cilia E) lysosomes
answer
chloroplasts
question
Which of the following organelles is the largest and most easily observed with the light microscope? A) mitochondria B) chloroplast C) nucleus D) ribosomes E) lysosomes
answer
nucleus
question
What is the correct organelle sequence for the export of material out of a cell? A) rough ER --> smooth ER --> Golgi apparatus B) smooth ER --> rough ER --> Golgi apparatus C) rough ER --> Golgi apparatus --> smooth ER D) smooth ER --> Golgi apparatus --> rough ER E) Golgi apparatus --> rough ER --> smooth ER
answer
rough er to smooth er to golgi apparatus
question
which organelle is used when the fingers of a human embryo are at first webbed but later freed from one another? A) rough ER B) microtubules C) Golgi apparatus D) mitochondria E) lysosome
answer
lysosome
question
A metabolic disorder involving a missing or inactive enzyme is found in the ______ produced by the _______. A) Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum B) ribosomes, nucleolus C) rough endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear envelope D) lysosomes, Golgi apparatus E) mitochondria, plasma membrane
answer
lysosomes, golgi
question
The flattened sacs within a chloroplast are called ______. A) matrix B) cristae C) grana D) thylakoids E) filaments
answer
grana
question
What is the function of the centrosome? A) to control the nucleus B) to regulate the assembly of microfilaments . C) to regulate the assembly of microtubules D) to control the Golgi apparatus E) to control the movement of cilia
answer
to regulate the assembly of microtubules
question
Which cytoskeletal structure is found in muscle cells that helps to bring about contraction? A) smooth endoplasmic reticulum B) rough endoplasmic reticulum C) centrioles D) actin filaments E) microtubules Feedback: Actin filamen
answer
actin filaments
question
Cristae are structures found in the ______. A) Golgi apparatus B) chloroplast C) mitochondria D) lysosome E) centriole
answer
mitochondira
question
Which of the following structures are found in plant cells but NOT in bacteria? A) plasma membrane B) cell wall C) DNA D) ribosomes E) mitochondria
answer
mitochondira
question
why do phospholipids spontaneously form bilayers structures,while oils form small dropletsoils are not as hydrophobic as phospholipidsthe fatty acids in oils prelude bilayer formationoils are energy reserves of cellsoils do not have the polar head group that phospholipids haveoils and water do not mix
answer
oils do not have the polar head group that phospholipids have
question
which statement about membrane proteins is true?hydrophillic regions of integral membrane proteins are in contact with the interior of the bilayerperipheral membrane proteins may be associated with the phospholipid head groupsintegral membrane proteins are fixed in placesome membrane proteins may be DNA attached to themRNA is found as part of most membrane proteins' structure
answer
peripheral membrane proteins may be associated with the phospholipid head groups
question
in addition to the lipid bilayer and proteins membranes may contain ______ in the form of _____ and ______nucleic acids; DNA; RNACarbohydrates; Cellulose; starchtriglycerides; fats; oilsnucleotides; ATP; GTPcarbohydraytes; glycoproteins; glycolipids
answer
carbohydraytes; glycoproteins; glycolipids
question
In animals, cell recognitioninvolves only in glycolipidsis mediated by the lipid bilayerinvovles soluble proteinsinvolves proteins in the plasma membranesis usually heterotypic
answer
involves soluble proteins
question
which molecules would diffuse across a phospholipid bilayer fastest, if there are no proteins associated with the bilayerh2onh4+ch3coo-na+nh3
answer
nh3
question
Osmosis is the movement of water across selectively permeable membranesthe active transport of water across membranesthe unidirectional; diffusion of water across membranesa process that is unaffected by solute concentrations inside cellsa process that requires energy
answer
the movement of water across selectively permeable membranes
question
if a suspension of red bloos cells is an isotonic NaCl collation was suddenly diluted with pure water by a factor of 10 the cells wouldpump water out of the celllose water and shrinkswell and lysetake up water, but the cell walls would prevent burstingremain as they are
answer
swell and lyse
question
in facilitated diffusionmolecules may be transported against concentration gradientspecific integral membrane proteins mediate transportthe rate of transport is independent of the concentration of the molecule transportedATP is usedEndocytosis is used
answer
specific integral membrane proteins mediate transport
question
The sodium-potassium pumpis present in endomembranesis an example of a secondary active transportresults in the formation of an Na+ concentration gradient across the cell membranecarries out facilitated diffusionpumps K+ out of cells
answer
results in the formation of an Na+ concentration gradient across the cell membrane
question
receptor-mediated endocytosisis nonspecificallows small molecules to enter cellsresults in the formation of clathrin-coated vesiclesdirectly involves the golgi apparatus is another name for phagocytosis
answer
results in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles
question
hormones are chemical signals thataffect adjacent cellswork in prokaryotesare autocrine signalstravel through circulatory systemsare paracrine signals
answer
travel through circulatory systems
question
a universal feature of receptors is that theyundergo structural shape changes when the signal molecules is boundare protein kinasesare present in the plasma membraneare ion channel proteinsdo not undergo structural shape changes when the signal molecule is bound
answer
undergo structural shape changes when the signal molecules is bound
question
which statement about receptors and enzymes is truemost receptors and enzymes are nucleic acidsboth receptors and enzymes may be integral membrane proteinsreceptor ligands, like enzyme substrates are altered during signal transductionreceptors and enzymes are not specific for the molecules they bindreceptors generally have enzymatic activity, where as enzymes do not
answer
both receptors and enzymes may be integral membrane proteins
question
chemical signal transduction pathwaysuse nonspecific receptorsinvolve binding of the signal molecule to receptoruse receptors that are located only on the cytoplasmuse receptors that change the ligands they bindall use G proteins
answer
involve binding of the signal molecules to receptor
question
Caffeineis structurally related to GDPbind to a receptor in the braincauses signal transduction by itselfis a signalis a depressant
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binds to a receptor in the brain
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adenyly cyclaseis located in a manner that cAMP is made of outside cells makes cAMP from ATP with the liberation of phosphateis inactivated by activated G proteinsmakes cAMP from ATP with the liberation of pyrophosphateis directly activated by receptors
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makes cAMP form ATP with liberation of pyrophosphate
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which statement about signal cascade is trueglycogen phosphorylase in liver cells is always activecAMP is reffered to as a first messengerepinephrine directly activates adenylyl cylasecAMP is reffered to as a second messengeradenylyl cylase is a protein kinase
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cAMP is reffered to as a second messenger
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which step of the signal transduction cascade that results in glucose release during the fight or flight response involves factors other than nucleotidephosphorlylation go glycogen phosphorylaseactivation of adenyly cylaseepinephrine binding to its receptoractivation of G proteininactivation of glycogen synthase
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epinephrine binding to its receptor
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the phosphorylation of proteins by ATPis catalyzed by enzymes known as protein kinasesalways stimulated that activity of an enzymeis catalyzed by adenylyl cylaseis catalyzed by epinephrine receptoris catalyzed by G protein
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is catalyzed by enzymes known as Protein Kinases
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Suppose the concentrain of epinephrine in the bloodstream of an animal drops. The cyclic Amp concentration in liver cells would be expected to ________ because _____ activity would ______increase; adenylyl cyclase; increasedecrease; protein kinase; decreasedecrease; phosphodiesterase; decreaseincrease; protein kinase; increasedecrease; adenylyl cyclase; decrease
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decrease; adenylyl cyclase; decrease
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Which protein is used to identify the cell? A) adenylate cyclase B) MHC (major histocompatibility complex) protein C) sodium-potassium pump protein D) chloride ion channel protein E) hemoglobin
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B) MHC (major histocompatibility complex) protein
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A hormone such as insulin acts by attaching to _____ proteins in the plasma membrane and increasing the glucose carriers present. A) receptor B) enzymatic C) carrier D) channel E) cell-recognition
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A) receptor